Accommodating style of conflict definition
This table, based on research by Pushkarev and Zupan (1977), indicates typical residential densities needed for various types of transit service.Such requirements are variable depending on other geographic, demographic and management factors.
(TOD) refers to residential and Commercial Centers designed to maximize access by Transit and Nonmotorized transportation, and with other features to Encourage Transit Ridership.Acceptable walking distances tend to be affected by: Walking conditions are convenient and comfortable, with good Connectivity that creates direct routes, good sidewalks and crosswalks, minimum waits at crosswalks, safe and secure walking conditions, and attractive streetscapes (such as storefronts and shade trees). Marc Schlossberg, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Katja Irvin and Vanessa Louise Bekkouche (2008), How Far, By Which Route, And Why? The station is located in the downtown core, which has relatively high-density commercial and residential development, typically at least four stories.APTA (2009), Defining Transit Areas of Influence, American Public Transportation Association (com); at SUDS-UD-009-01_areas_of_ A Spatial Analysis Of Pedestrian Preference, Mineta Transportation Institute ( at Around that is mixed medium-density development consisting of two to four story apartments, townhouses and small-lot single-family homes.It is therefore important that such areas be attractive and inviting to visitors.Whats the difference between a true transit-oriented development, which will deliver promised social and economic benefits, and a transit-adjacent development?This reduces total transportation costs and helps create a more Livable community, in addition to supporting TDM objectives.
High-quality transit supports the development of higher-density urban centers, which can provide accessibility and agglomeration benefits (efficiencies that result when many activities are physically close together), while automobile-oriented transportation conflicts with urban density because it is space intensive, requiring large amounts of land for roads and parking facilities.
Hale (2011) discusses various factors that affect transit station access mode share.
Transit Oriented Development generally requires at least 6 residential units per acre in residential areas and 25 employees per acre in Commercial Centers, and about twice that for premium quality transit, such as rail service (Pushkarev and Zupan 1977; Cervero, et al. These Densities create adequate transit ridership to justify frequent service, and help create active street life and commercial activities, such as grocery stores and coffee shops, within convenient walking distance of homes and worksites.
It tends to increase property values 5-15%, reflecting the direct benefits to residents and businesses of having diverse transportation options, and resulting automobile and parking cost savings (CNT 2013; Smith and Gihring 2003).
As a result, such projects can often be funded through value capture strategies, in which the costs of improvements are paid through the additional tax revenue or a special Local Improvement District (LID) tax assessment in the affected area (Smith and Gihring 2003).
Large scale Park & Ride facilities tend to conflict with Transit Oriented Development, since a rail station surrounded by large parking lots and arterials with heavy traffic is unlikely to provide a good environment for residential development or pedestrian access.