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By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north.
South Australia was officially proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North.In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism.Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed.It ranks highly in terms of quality of life, being consistently listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation (pronounced "Garner").This article is about the greater metropolitan area known as Adelaide. For the local government area, see City of Adelaide. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia.
Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city.
Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history.
As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions.
The event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day.
The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston.
Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area.