Relative dating of geological strata
The Carbon14 technique has been and continues to be applied and used in many, many different fields including hydrology, atmospheric science, oceanography, geology, palaeoclimatology, archaeology and biomedicine. Isochron methods avoid the problems which can potentially result during radiometric testing.
James Hutton and William Smith advanced the concept of geologic time and strengthened the belief in an ancient world.However, human beings love to see factual precision, and we want to know how old something is.Please remember that all dating methods, even those termed "absolute," are subject to margins of error. That is a very small amount of possible error range. Modern studies almost always use two or more methods to confirm dating work and to build confidence in the results obtained.Further, he proposed that wherever uncontorted layers were exposed, the bottom layer was deposited first and was, therefore, the oldest layer exposed; each succeeding layer, up to the topmost one, was progressively younger.The Major Divisions of Geologic Time are shown here, arranged in chronological order with the oldest division at the bottom, the youngest at the top. Specifically, stratigraphy refers to the application of the Law of Superposition to soil and geological strata containing archaeological materials in order to determine the relative ages of layers.See more information about "Strata" Smith and his original geologic map of England.
Information about Simon Winchester's delightful biography of Smith, The Map That Changed the World is available at Tree-Ring dating is based on the principle that the growth rings on certain species of trees reflect variations in seasonal and annual rainfall.
[ While this may be true, a shrub in Tasmania could be 40,000 years old.
See Oldest Living Organism.] The Sheffield Laboratory now has a continuous master sequence for England going back to about 5000BC. This article should be a "must read" for any person interested in factualy accurate information on dating methods.
A short but clear explanation about radioactive isotopes commonly used for determining ages of rocks (with graphics) and putting numbers on the geologic time scale, extending it back before the occurance of abundant index fossils.
This is a relatively new method intended to to improve the precision of uranium and thorium istopy methods.
Because of the distortions and lies spread by fundamentalists about scientific dating there is a need for a centralized source of information on the topic.