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(Protestant Exodus date) in Canaan to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan from Egypt and _cannot_ have been written by an eye-witness whether that be Moses or someone else. The latter number came into existence no earlier than the 12th century B. The Pentateuch and its Exodus narratives use 22 letters not the 30 letters of Moses' days.We "know" Moses did _not_ write the Exodus account because it is presented in the third person format. The sites enumerated in Numbers 33:1-50 were most probably sites known to the narrator who wrote the account in the 7th/6th century B. so they most likely were in existence in his day (some may have been abandoned in his days while others were occupied but they did "exist" at least physically).
The way to the coastal highway had an insurmountable barrier, the fortress Tjaru..."I understand that the Bible's "internal chronology" suggests the Exodus was the Hyksos expulsion of circa 1540 B. They most likely fled along "the way of Horus" (biblical "way to the land of the Philistines") to Sharuhen near Gaza, the Egyptian army later pursued and defeated them at this location (Tell el Ajjul).Sinai being traditionally Gebel Musa near Saint Catherine's Monastery).Some conservative Catholic scholars date the Exodus to 1512 B. while some conservative Protestant scholars date it to 1446 B. on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1 statement that Solomon built the Temple 480 years after the Exodus. Hoffmeier appears to deny the biblical reason for Israel's not taking the way of the Philistines, was fear of Philistines, he claims that an Egyptian fortress guarded this track and Israel feared the Egyptian garrisons rather than Philistines:"Based on the archaeological, historical, and environmental data now available, the identification of Hebua with ancient Tjaru seems likely...It is the Late Iron Age II Period, the 7th-6th centuries B. Some scholars have suggested on this archaeological basis that the Exodus account was composed towards "the end of the Late Iron Age II Period," the author and his audience being apparently _unaware_ that the cities in existence at this time were _not_ in existence (or if in existence, they were unoccupied) within the time frame the anonymous author cast the Exodus story in. For the reasons why "Sites mentioned in the Exodus narrative are real.I understand that Genesis-2 Kings was composed in 560 B. A few were well known and apparently occupied in much earlier periods and much later periods- after the kingdom of Judah was established, when the text of the biblical narrative was set down in writing for the first time.The findings of the above-listed surveys indicate there are few, if any, Late Bronze Age materials and a paucity of Iron I Age materials in the areas being surveyed.
On the other hand, the Iron II Age is well represented in all of these areas.
The best that they can do is attempt to identify a string of sites existing principally in the 7th-6th centuries B. The biblical narrative suggests Israel fears the warlike Philistines upon exiting Egypt (Ex ) so they do not take "the way to the land of the Philistines" the northern track across the Sinai paralleling the Mediteranean Sea although this is the fastest way to Canaan. Archaeologists understand the Philistines did not settle in Canaan before circa 1175 B. in the days of Pharaoh Rameses III who defeated their attempted invasion of Egypt.
This means that the biblical narrator and his audience were _unaware_ that there were no Philistines for Israel to fear and thus no need to have Israel travel south to the Red Sea (gulf of Suez) and the southern Sinai (Mt.
for my article exploring the letter forms Moses would have used in 1512/1446 B. as revealed by archaeological findings in the Sinai.
For whatever archaeological timeframe that is chosen there are _always_ sites either not yet in exsitence or if in existence are unoccupied (deserted).
Only then were most of the identified sites occupied; there is little or no evidence of their occupation during either the Iron I or early Iron II Age"My experience in the field of Near Eastern archaeology has led me to the general conclusion that the biblical stories about Transjordanian places and events best fit into the Iron II period and later.